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LICENCE TO RAPE: The Burmese military regime

by admin last modified 2005-05-18 16:26

LICENSE TO RAPE

The Burmese military regime's 
use of sexual violence in the ongoing war 
in Shan State

By

The Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
&
The Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN)

May 2002


CONTENTS

Map of location of sexual violence
Executive Summary
Introduction
Background
........Historical and political background of Shan State
........Gender roles in Shan society and traditional responses to rape
........Sexual violence during four decades of civil war
........Increasing militarization of Shan State

Rape condoned as a weapon of war
........The systematic and widespread incidence of rape
........Officers committing rape
........Further torture, killing of raped women
........Gang-rape
........Rapes within military bases
........Extended detention for the purpose of rape
........Lack of prosecution of perpetrators, punishment of complainants

Militarization leading to increased vulnerability to rape
.....Forced relocation
........Rape while villagers were in the process of being forcibly relocated
........Rape of women found outside relocation sites
........Rape of women within the relocation sites
.....Forced labour
........Forced portering
........Other forms of forced labour
........Military checkpoints
.....Roving patrols: lack of accountability

The survivors
........Effects on physical health
........Effects on mental health
........Family and community support
........Double punishment: blame and rejection following rape
........Migration following rape
........Lack of protection and support in Thailand
........Danger of deportation

Sexual violence as an international crime
........Sexual violence as torture
........Sexual violence as a consituent element of genocide
........Sexual violence as crimes against humanity
........Sexual violence as a war crime
........Command responsibility for rape

Conclusion and recommendations
Appendices: 
1. Detailed interviews (28 cases)
2. List of SPDC battalions whose members committed sexual violence
3. Names of perpetrators of sexual violence
4. Maps of locations of incidents of sexual violence
5. Summary of 173 cases of sexual violence: Chart 1, Chart 2